Spring 2022 - modes of transmission update. Aerosolized particles are a persistent hazard, especially in public bathrooms

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infections and exposure in surfaces, points and wastewaters: A global one health perspective

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666016422000068?via%3Dihub=&s=01


I copied and pasted this section in if you didn't want to read the whole thing. Wear a mask in bathrooms and on public transportation. Any place without good ventilation, too.

2.2. Public toilets

Public restrooms represent a significant hazard in the direct human transmission of coronavirus. The route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is via three ways: inhalation of feces and/or aerosol urine from an individual who contains SARS-CoV-2; airborne respiratory transmission face-to-face our shortly after use among users; or from the transmission of fomite through sites of repeated contact such as doorknobs, washbasin faucets, ball balls or toilet roll dispensers [13]. 

A current systematic review attributed the coronavirus prevalence in hospitals and recorded 24% of air samples collected from toilets were tested positive, with mean viral RNA concentrations per m3. Air is higher than in any other areas that were sampled [30]. Destitute adherence to hand cleanliness encourages the survival and determination of hand infections for transmission to self or other planes [31]. Indeed, on the off chance that hands are wet washed, they may not essentially be appropriately dried, and damp hands can choose microscopic organisms from another surface they touch [32]. SARS-CoV-2 can survive on indoor natural textures, for example, plastic, glass, stainless steel, ceramics, elastic gloves, wood, and surgical veils [14,15]. Infection endures many hours later in feces and 3–4 days in pee [14]. Such studies suggest that the surface life of virus is sufficient for continued transmission. Dangers from toilet surfaces would contact surface sprinkles on can bowls, latrine bowls, or other adjacent surfaces.

While door handles are only objects that anybody within the population can touch. Still, a toilet is a closed space within which anyone can enter and where most of the excretion related to virus shedding happens. There are only a limited number of activities that one can do in a toilet. This means that toilets are exposed to many people. Toilet papers, toilet covers, toilet seats, washing basins, and of course, door handles of toilets are highly considerable [33]. The traces of viruses detected in were a study of patients’ ooms, indicating SARS-CoV-2 positive swabs from toilets’ door handles, toilets’ surfaces and sink [34]. The statistical significance of another study that sampled surfaces in hospitals suggested that toilet-related covers have an even higher rate of contamination, and samples were taken from the toilet ceiling-exhaust grille. Drainage stacks indicated a certain amount of condensed viral loads from aerosols that might be from toilet flushing. The contaminated surfaces suggested that these viruses may originate from the feces of patients as stool samples of patients (with or without diarrheas) are SARS-CoV-2 positive. In addition, materials in toilets are often made to be smooth for easy cleaning, but this increases the rate of surface-touch transferring [35]. Outside the bathrooms of hospitals, a case of transmission between 9 people in a public restroom was reported [36]. Compared to open spaces or rooms where the name does not define their activities, toilets are places where people have higher chances virus infections.



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